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Efficacy of Propranolol Between 6 and 12 Months of Age in High-Risk Infantile Hemangioma

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

There is no consensus on optimal treatment duration for propranolol in infantile hemangioma (IH). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of oral propranolol solution administered for a minimum of 6 months up to a maximum of 12 months of age in high-risk IH.

METHODS:

This single-arm, open-label, phase 3 study was conducted in patients aged 35 to 150 days with high-risk IH in 10 hospitals between 2015 and 2017. The study comprised a 6-month initial treatment period (ITP) plus continuation up to 12 months of age if complete success was not achieved, a follow-up, and a retreatment period. Patients received oral propranolol twice daily (3 mg/kg per day). The primary end point was the success rate at the end of the ITP. Furthermore, the persistence of IH response and efficacy of retreatment was evaluated.

RESULTS:

The success rate after 6 months of treatment was 47%, increasing to 76% at the end of the ITP. Of the patients who achieved success, 68% sustained success for 3 months without treatment, and 24% required retreatment. Of the 8 patients who were retreated, 7 achieved success. Adverse events, reported by 80% of patients, were mild, which were expected in this population or known propranolol side effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Oral propranolol administered beyond 6 months and up to 12 months of age meaningfully increases the success rate in high-risk IH. Success was sustained in most patients up to 3 months after stopping treatment. Retreatment was efficacious, and the safety profile satisfactory.

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