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Detection of tuberculosis patterns in digital photographs of chest X-ray images using Deep Learning: feasibility study.

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Detection of tuberculosis patterns in digital photographs of chest X-ray images using Deep Learning: feasibility study.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018 Mar 01;22(3):328-335

Authors: Becker AS, Blüthgen C, Phi van VD, Sekaggya-Wiltshire C, Castelnuovo B, Kambugu A, Fehr J, Frauenfelder T

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of Deep Learning-based detection and classification of pathological patterns in a set of digital photographs of chest X-ray (CXR) images of tuberculosis (TB) patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, patients with previously diagnosed TB were enrolled. Photographs of their CXRs were taken using a consumer-grade digital still camera. The images were stratified by pathological patterns into classes: cavity, consolidation, effusion, interstitial changes, miliary pattern or normal examination. Image analysis was performed with commercially available Deep Learning software in two steps. Pathological areas were first localised; detected areas were then classified. Detection was assessed using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, and classification using a confusion matrix.
RESULTS: The study cohort was 138 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and TB co-infection (median age 34 years, IQR 28-40); 54 patients were female. Localisation of pathological areas was excellent (area under the ROC curve 0.82). The software could perfectly distinguish pleural effusions from intraparenchymal changes. The most frequent misclassifications were consolidations as cavitations, and miliary patterns as interstitial patterns (and vice versa).
CONCLUSION: Deep Learning analysis of CXR photographs is a promising tool. Further efforts are needed to build larger, high-quality data sets to achieve better diagnostic performance.

PMID: 29471912 [PubMed – in process]

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