The capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) is recommended for children with complement deficiencies, asplenia, and splenic dysfunction; however, data on the immunogenicity of 4CMenB in these “at-risk” children are missing.
Participants aged 2 to 17 years in Italy, Spain, Poland, the United Kingdom, and Russia with complement deficiencies, asplenia, or splenic dysfunction received 2 doses of 4CMenB 2 months apart, as did healthy children in the control group. Exogenous and endogenous human complement serum bactericidal activity (SBA) was determined at baseline and 1 month after the second immunization against 4 test strains: H44/76 (assessing vaccine antigen factor H binding protein), 5/99 (Neisserial adhesion A), NZ98/254 (Porin A), and M10713 (Neisserial heparin binding antigen).
Of 239 participants (mean age 10.3 years, 45% female), 40 children were complement deficient (9 eculizumab therapy, 4 terminal-chain deficiencies, 27 “other”), 112 children had asplenia or splenic dysfunction (8 congenital asplenia, 8 functional asplenia, 96 splenectomy), and 87 children were in the control group. After immunization, the proportions of complement-deficient participants with exogenous complement SBA titers ≥1:5 were 87% (H44/76), 95% (5/99), 68% (NZ98/254), and 73% (M10713), compared with 97%, 100%, 86%, and 94%, respectively, for asplenic children and 98%, 99%, 83%, and 99% for children in the control group. When testing with endogenous complement, strain-specific bactericidal activity was evident in only 1 eculizumab-treated participant and 1 terminal chain complement-deficient participant.
4CMenB administration is similarly immunogenic in healthy children and those with asplenia or splenic dysfunction. The significance of the trend to lower responses of SBA titers in complement-deficient children (especially those with terminal chain complement deficiency or those on eculizumab therapy) must be determined by ongoing surveillance for vaccine failures.