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PI(4,5)P2 determines the threshold of mechanical force-induced B cell activation


B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to sense the chemical and physical features of antigens. The activation of isotype-switched IgG-BCR by mechanical force exhibits a distinct sensitivity and threshold in comparison with IgM-BCR. However, molecular mechanisms governing these differences remain to be identified. In this study, we report that the low threshold of IgG-BCR activation by mechanical force is highly dependent on tethering of the cytoplasmic tail of the IgG-BCR heavy chain (IgG-tail) to the plasma membrane. Mechanistically, we show that the positively charged residues in the IgG-tail play a crucial role by highly enriching phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) into the membrane microdomains of IgG-BCRs. Indeed, manipulating the amounts of PI(4,5)P2 within IgG-BCR membrane microdomains significantly altered the threshold and sensitivity of IgG-BCR activation. Our results reveal a lipid-dependent mechanism for determining the threshold of IgG-BCR activation by mechanical force.



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