Ploidy is tightly regulated in eukaryotic cells and is critical for cell function and survival. Cells coordinate multiple pathways to ensure replicated DNA is segregated accurately to prevent abnormal changes in chromosome number. In this study, we characterize an unanticipated role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae “remodels the structure of chromatin” (RSC) complex in ploidy maintenance. We show that deletion of any of six nonessential RSC genes causes a rapid transition from haploid to diploid DNA content because of nondisjunction events. Diploidization is accompanied by diagnostic changes in cell morphology and is stably maintained without further ploidy increases. We find that RSC promotes chromosome segregation by facilitating spindle pole body (SPB) duplication. More specifically, RSC plays a role in distributing two SPB insertion factors, Nbp1 and Ndc1, to the new SPB. Thus, we provide insight into a role for a SWI/SNF family complex in SPB duplication and ploidy maintenance.