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Deficiency of FAM3D (Family With Sequence Similarity 3, Member D), A Novel Chemokine, Attenuates Neutrophil Recruitment and Ameliorates Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm DevelopmentHighlights [Translational Sciences]

Objective—Chemokine-mediated neutrophil recruitment contributes to the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and may serve as a promising therapeutic target. FAM3D (family with sequence similarity 3, member D) is a recently identified novel chemokine. Here, we aimed to explore the role of FAM3D in neutrophil recruitment and AAA development.Approach and Results—FAM3D was markedly upregulated in human AAA tissues, as well as both elastase- and CaPO4-induced mouse aneurysmal aortas. FAM3D deficiency significantly attenuated the development of AAA in both mouse models. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that FAM3D−/− mice exhibited decreased neutrophil infiltration in the aorta during the early stage of AAA formation compared with their wild-type littermates. Moreover, application of FAM3D-neutralizing antibody 6D7 through intraperitoneal injection markedly ameliorated elastase-induced AAA formation and neutrophil infiltration. Further, in vitro coculture experiments with FAM3D-neutralizing antibody 6D7 and in vivo intravital microscopic analysis indicated that endothelial cell–derived FAM3D induced neutrophil recruitment. Mechanistically, FAM3D upregulated and activated Mac-1 (macrophage-1 antigen) in neutrophils, whereas inhibition of FPR1 (formyl peptide receptor 1) or FPR2 significantly blocked FAM3D-induced Mac-1 activation, indicating that the effect of FAM3D was dependent on both FPRs. Moreover, specific inhibitors of FPR signaling related to Gi protein or β-arrestin inhibited FAM3D-activated Mac-1 in vitro, whereas FAM3D deficiency decreased the activation of both FPR-Gi protein and β-arrestin signaling in neutrophils in vivo.Conclusions—FAM3D, as a dual agonist of FPR1 and FPR2, induced Mac-1-mediated neutrophil recruitment and aggravated AAA development through FPR-related Gi protein and β-arrestin signaling.

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