Individualized Left Anterior Oblique Projection: A Highly Reliable Patient-Tailored Fluoroscopy Criterion for Right Ventricular Lead Positioning [Original Articles]


Classical fluoroscopic criteria for the documentation of septal right ventricular (RV) lead positioning have poor accuracy. We sought to evaluate the individualized left anterior oblique (LAO) projection as a novel fluoroscopy criterion.


Consecutive patients undergoing pacemaker or defibrillator implantation were prospectively included. RV lead positioning was assessed by fluoroscopy using posteroanterior, right anterior oblique 30° to rule out coronary sinus positioning, and LAO 40° in the classical group or individualized LAO in the individualized group. Individualized LAO was defined by the degree of LAO that allowed the perfect superposition of the RV apex (using the tip of the RV lead temporarily placed at the apex) and of the superior vena cava-inferior vena cava axis (materialized by a guidewire), hence providing a true profile view of the interventricular septum. Accuracy of fluoroscopy for RV lead positioning was then assessed by comparison with true RV lead positioning using transthoracic echocardiography.


We included 100 patients, 50 in each study group. Agreement between RV lead septal/free wall positioning in transthoracic echocardiography and fluoroscopy was excellent in the individualized group (k=0.91), whereas it was poor in the classical group (k=0.35). Septal/free wall RV lead positioning was correctly identified in 48/50 (96%) patients in the individualized group versus 38/50 (76%) in the classical group (P=0.004). For septal lead positioning, fluoroscopy had 100% Se and 89.5% Sp in the individualized group versus 91.4% Se and 40% Sp in the classical group. Complications and procedural data were comparable in both groups.


Individualized LAO is a quick and highly reliable patient-tailored fluoroscopy projection for RV lead positioning.

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