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Time in Therapeutic Range and Outcomes After Warfarin Initiation in Newly Diagnosed Atrial Fibrillation Patients With Renal Dysfunction [Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease]

BackgroundIt is unknown whether renal dysfunction conveys poor anticoagulation control in warfarin‐treated patients with atrial fibrillation and whether poor anticoagulation control associates with the risk of adverse outcomes in these patients.Methods and ResultsThis was an observational study from the Stockholm CREatinine Measurements (SCREAM) cohort including all newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients initiating treatment with warfarin (n=7738) in Stockholm, Sweden, between 2006 and 2011. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; mL/min per 1.73 m2) was calculated from serum creatinine. Time‐in‐therapeutic range (TTR) was assessed from international normalized ratio (INR) measurements up to warfarin cessation, adverse event, or end of follow‐up (2 years). Adverse events considered a composite of intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or death. During median 254 days, TTR was 83%, based on median 21 INR measurements per patient. TTR was 70% among patients with eGFR <30, around 10% lower than in those with normal renal function. During observation, adverse events occurred in 4.0% of patients, and those with TTR ≤75% were at higher adverse event risk. This was independent of patient characteristics, comorbidities, number of INR tests, days exposed to warfarin, and, notably, independent of eGFR: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.84 (95% CI, 1.41–2.40) for TTR 75% to 60% and adjusted OR 2.09 (1.59–2.74) for TTR <60%. No interaction was observed between eGFR and TTR in association to adverse events (P=0.2).ConclusionSevere chronic kidney disease (eGFR <30) patients with atrial fibrillation have worse INR control while on warfarin. An optimal TTR (>75%) is associated with lower risk of adverse events, independently of underlying renal function.

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