Re-Defining Stem Cell-Cardiomyocyte Interactions: Focusing on the Paracrine Effector Approach.
J Stem Cells Regen Med. 2018;14(1):10-26
Authors: Mahapatra S, Martin D, Gallicano GI
Stem cell research for treating or curing ischemic heart disease has, till date, culminated in three basic approaches: the use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology; reprogramming cardiac fibroblasts; and cardiovascular progenitor cell regeneration. As each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, exploiting the advantages while minimizing the disadvantages has been a challenge. Using human germline pluripotent stem cells (hgPSCs) along with a modified version of a relatively novel cell-expansion culture methodology to induce quick, indefinite expansion of normally slow growing hgPSCs, it was possible to emphasize the advantages of all three approaches. We consistently found that unipotent germline stem cells, when removed from their niche and cultured in the correct medium, expressed endogenously, pluripotency genes, which induced them to become hgPSCs. These cells are then capable of producing cell types from all three germ layers. Upon differentiation into cardiac lineages, our data consistently showed that they not only expressed cardiac genes, but also expressed cardiac-promoting paracrine factors. Taking these data a step further, we found that hgPSC-derived cardiac cells could integrate into cardiac tissue in vivo. Note, while the work presented here was based on testes-derived hgPSCs, data from other laboratories have shown that ovaries contain very similar types of stem cells that can give rise to hgPSCs. As a result, hgPSCs should be considered a viable option for eventual use in patients, male or female, with ischemic heart disease.
PMID: 30018469 [PubMed]