Population pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in liver transplantation: implications for target attainment for infections with Candida albicans and non-albicans spp.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Jul 21;:
Authors: Cojutti PG, Lugano M, Righi E, Della Rocca G, Bassetti M, Hope W, Pea F
OBJECTIVES: The study aims to assess the population pharmacokinetics of fluconazole and the adequacy of current dosages and breakpoints against Candida albicans and non-albicans spp. in liver transplant (LT) patients.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients initiated i.v. fluconazole within 1 month from liver transplantation (LTx) for prevention or treatment of Candida spp. infections. Multiple assessments of trough and peak plasma concentrations of fluconazole were undertaken in each patient by means of therapeutic drug monitoring. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to define the probability of target attainment (PTA) with a loading dose (LD) of 400, 600, and 800 mg at day 1, 7, 14, and 28 from LTx, followed by a maintenance dose (MD) of 100, 200, and 300 mg daily of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target of AUC24h/MIC ratio ≥ 55.2.
RESULTS: Nineteen patients were recruited. A two-compartment model with first-order intravenous input and first-order elimination was developed. Patient’s age and time elapsed from LTx were the covariates included in the final model. At an MIC of 2 mg/L, a LD of 600 mg was required for optimal PTAs between days 1 and 20 from LTx, while 400 mg was sufficient from days 21 on. A MD of 200 mg was required for patients aged 40-49 years old, while a dose of 100 mg was sufficient for patients aged ≥ 50 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Fluconazole dosages of 100-200 mg daily may ensure optimal PTA against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Higher dosages are required against C. glabrata. Estimated creatinine clearance is not a reliable predictor of fluconazole clearance in LT patients.
PMID: 30032414 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]