Low Biofilm Lysine Content in Refractory Chronic Periodontitis.
J Periodontol. 2017 Feb;88(2):181-189
Authors: Levine M, Lohinai Z, Teles RP
BACKGROUND: Chronic periodontitis is controlled without antibiotics by scaling and root planing (SRP) to remove dental biofilm. It has been previously reported that the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory products is impaired when biofilm lysine falls below the minimal content of normal blood plasma. Aims were to examine whether being refractory and requiring antibiotics to supplement SRP were associated with low biofilm lysine contents.
METHODS: Sixteen patients with periodontitis and six periodontally healthy volunteers (HVs) (respective mean ages: 57 ± 6 and 36 ± 8 years) were examined. Patients with periodontitis received SRP and surgery, and HVs received prophylaxis. At quarterly maintenance or prophylaxis visits during the subsequent year, therapeutic response was good (GR, n = 9) or poor (PR, n = 7; including five cigarette smokers). Biofilm cadaverine, lysine, and other amino acid (AA) contents were determined by liquid chromatography. Cadaverine mole fraction of lysine plus cadaverine (CF) indicated biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity.
RESULTS: Biofilm lysine was 0.19 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 μmol/mg in GRs and HVs, but 0.07 ± 0.03 μmol/mg in PRs (Kruskal-Wallis: P <0.01). All AAs were depleted in biofilm from smokers, but only lysine was depleted in biofilm from non-smokers. CF was inversely associated with clinical attachment level (CAL) at baseline before therapy in all patients (R2 = 0.28, P <0.01) and with CAL change after therapy in GR (R2 = 0.49, P <0.05). Lysine and cadaverine contents discriminated PRs from GRs and HVs (Wilks’ λ = 0.499, P <0.012).
CONCLUSIONS: Refractory responses requiring antibiotic therapy result from smoking and/or microbial infections that starve the biofilm and epithelial attachment of lysine. Biofilm CF is associated with periodontitis severity pretherapy and extent of therapeutic response post-therapy.
PMID: 27620654 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]