Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Potential of Roxadustat (FG-4592), a Small Molecule Inhibitor of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl Hydroxylase in CD-1 Mice and Sprague Dawley Rats.
Int J Toxicol. 2017 Nov/Dec;36(6):427-439
Authors: Beck J, Henschel C, Chou J, Lin A, Del Balzo U
The carcinogenic potential of roxadustat (FG-4592), a novel orally active, heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) enzymes in clinical development for treatment of anemia, was evaluated in CD-1 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Inhibition of HIF-PH by roxadustat leads to a rapid increase in cytoplasmic HIF-α concentrations, followed by translocation of HIF-α to the nucleus and upregulation of HIF-responsive genes, including erythropoietin. Roxadustat was dosed by oral gavage 3 times weekly (TIW) for up to 104 weeks in mice at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg and in rats at 0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg. Treatment-associated changes in hematology parameters were consistent with the pharmacologic activity of roxadustat and included elevations in hematocrit in mice at 30 and 60 mg/kg TIW and elevations in erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red cell distribution width in rats at 10 mg/kg TIW. No increase in mortality or neoplastic effects compared with vehicle controls was observed after roxadustat treatment in either species. No treatment-related nonneoplastic findings were observed in mice, whereas nonneoplastic microscopic findings in rats were limited to atrial/aortic thromboses at 10 mg/kg TIW males and bone marrow hypercellularity in all treated male and female groups, consistent with the pharmacology of roxadustat. In conclusion, roxadustat administered by oral gavage to mice and rats TIW for up to 104 weeks resulted in dose-dependent exposure and hematologic effects with no effect on survival or development of neoplastic lesions at up to 60 mg/kg in mice and up to 10 mg/kg in rats.
PMID: 29153032 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]